Table 17.1 “Theory Snapshot” summarizes what these perspectives say. Thomas M. Kiefer, The Tausūg: Violence and Law in a Philippine Moslem Society (New York: Holt Rinehart, 1972). Anthropology was founded by freeing itself from the confines of religious authority. Hence if today anthropology reports on the boundaries between religion and secularism, it At least, such is anthropology’s original self-understanding, part of its project and ideology. When I began with the usual formula concernihg the universality of religiohi, one of the students of Eastern origin again insisted that his country has no religion. religion. For example, Turner was highly influential in pursuing the Anthropology of Religion in which he used tribal categories as a means of comprehending aspects of the Catholic Church, such as modern-day pilgrimage (Turner and Turner 1978). "Religion is: (1) a system of symbols which acts to (2) establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men [sic] by (3) formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and (4) clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality In order to understand the idea of “Supernaturalism” in Intro-to-Anthropology, we read the “Supernaturalism” chapter in Through the Lens of Anthropology and a famous article by George Gmelch titled “Baseball Magic” (2000). It was at this stage that the importance of a definition of religion dawned upon me, a pursuit Jack David Eller, Introducing Anthropology of Religion. Sociological perspectives on religion aim to understand the functions religion serves, the inequality and other problems it can reinforce and perpetuate, and the role it plays in our daily lives (Emerson, Monahan, & Mirola, 2011). Those with no religion or no interest in religion are difficult to convert, especially since the cult and sect beliefs are so extreme by the standards of the surrounding society. But those already happy members of a religious group are difficult to convert as well, since they have strong social links to their preexisting religion and are unlikely to want to sever them in order to join a new one. Cultural universals ( which has been mentioned by anthropologists like George Murdock, Claude Levi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others) can be defined as being anything common that exists in every human culture on the planet yet varies from different culture to culture, such as values and modes of behavior. This class does Anthropology & Religion via a chapter on 'Supernaturalism' and the famous reading of George Gmelch's 'Baseball Magic.' ANTHROPOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND RELIGION ANTHROPOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND RELIGION.In his classic discussion of "the sick soul" in The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902), William James observes that "philosophic theism has always shown a tendency to become pantheistic and monistic, and to consider the world as one unit of absolute fact." Charles Ikels, Filial Piety: Practice and Discourse in Contemporary East Asia