Suggested Reading John Stuart Mill Utilitarianism ch 2 and ch 4. The main difference between act and rule utilitarianism is that act utilitarianism emphasizes the consequences/results of action whereas rule utilitarianism emphasizes the consequences from following a rule of conduct. M. Hare’s differentiation between the intuitive and critical level of moral thinking. One objection to rule-utilitarianism is that in some situations the utility of breaking a certain rule could be greater than keeping it. Utilitarianism is based on the principle of utility. Utilitarianism is one of the best known and most influential moral theories. http://prevos.net/essays-in-humanities/philosophy/utilitarianism/, https://i0.wp.com/prevos.net/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2004/11/utilitarianism_green_2_tone_mug_left_hand-p168138766683695088bh2ae_400-e1455908902592.jpg?resize=300%2C283. What is the Difference Between Act and Rule Utilitarianism, What are the Similarities Between Act and Rule Utilitarianism. Her academic interests are English language, European and Oriental Languages, Internal Affairs and International Politics, and Psychology. A major difference between act and rule utilitarianism is that, in act utilitarianism, the consequences are on the action while in rule utilitarianism, the consequences are on the rule(s) followed. Utilitarianism is also based on the pleasure principle concept and hedonism. Therefore, rule utilitarianism explains that following a moral code of principles (that are comprehensible to all people) is the most efficient way to create greater good to humanity. The ethical theory of utilitarianism, the idea that we have to maximise the amount of utility, i.e. Accordingly, these specific rules should result in increasing the overall utility and happiness of the majority of the people. 2009, Available here. Upen, BA (Honours) in Languages and Linguistics, has academic experiences and knowledge on international relations and politics. “The History of Utilitarianism.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, 27 Mar. La théorie de l'utilitarisme réside dans l'accomplissement d'actes bons ou mauvais et qui sont corrects ou faux. Rule-utilitarianism is a reaction to that objection. During the twentieth century many different versions of utilitarianism have been proposed. This paper is a brief philosophical exploration into act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism, both of which are two different approaches within the ethical theory of utilitarianism. An overview (about 8,000 words) of act utilitarianism, covering the basic idea of the theory, historical examples, how it differs from rule utilitarianism and motive utilitarianism, supporting arguments, and standard objections. Act utilitarianism is a utilitarian theory of ethics that highlights the morality of an action is determined by its usefulness to the people. Airth, Maria. Therefore, the greater good or happiness can be achieved by following and adhering to the correct rules that apply to all equally. For instance, act utilitarianism views doing charity works and punishing crimes are morally right since they produce greater happiness and good to the people. ACT and RULE Utilitarianism . I will also explore a third option which attempts to find a solution to the problems both approaches face: . when these set of rules are decided and accepted by the public, they apply to every social situation without any exception. A plausible formulation of rule-utilitarianism would thus have it recommend the same actions as act-utilitarianism. The main difference between act and rule utilitarianism is that act utilitarianism emphasizes the consequences/results of action whereas rule utilitarianism emphasizes the consequences from following a rule of conduct.. Utilitarianism, which is one of the most influential moral theories in the world, refers to the theory that the morality of actions depends on their effect on the … One way to do this is to identify specific conditions under which violating a general moral requirement would be justified. These definitions explain the difference between act and rule utilitarianism. Rule utilitarianism, on the other hand, is a utilitarian theory of ethics that highlights the morality of an action is when it conforms to a certain rule that leads to the greatest good or happiness of the people. Utilitarianism is also noted as a form of consequentialism; here, the right action is defined entirely in terms of consequences produced. Utilitarianism, which is one of the most influential moral theories in the world, refers to the theory that the morality of actions depends on their effect on the people. Therefore the difference between Act and rule Utilitarianism is central to the concept of utility and whether or not you believe that a moral code should still be applied. Act utilitarianism evaluates an act by its actual consequences whereas rule utilitarianism evaluates an action by the consequences of its universal practice (by all other persons, and perhaps into the future and past as well). Both theories count as utilitarian because both define that which produces the greatest utility as good and seek for the greatest nett amount of utility, be it either through actions or indirectly through rules. Act and rule utilitarianism are two main sub-branches of utilitarianism, which differ in their focus. Hence, an action, if it has greater benefits to most people, is considered morally right and ethical under act utilitarianism. Act Utilitarianism vs Rule Utilitarianism . What are the Similarities Between Act and Rule Utilitarianism – Outline of Common Features 5. A key point in this article concerns the distinction between individual actions and types of actions. The consequences of the act of giving money to charity would be considered right in act-utilitarianism, because the money increases the happiness of many people, rather than just yourself. Under act utilitarianism, the morality is on the effect of a good action that benefits most people whereas, in rule utilitarianism, the morality is on following a certain rule or code of conduct (when doing an action) that has benefits to most people. to maximise the benefit of your actions. Thus, this concept considers the good of others as well as one’s own good. 2009, Available here.5. Other reasons sometimes put forward include: rules overcome the need to constantly do a ‘cost-benefit’ utility analysis, which can be impractical; they may overcome our inability to calculate the consequences our actions will have on other people’s welfare; and they may overcome our inability to act without prejudice, self interest and failure of imagination.