As the citizens of the Ambrosian Republic can testify, mercenary troops can be hazardous to your power. While the other Italian states gradually recognized Sforza as the legitimate Duke of Milan, he was never able to obtain official investiture from the Holy Roman Emperor. Ludovico added insult to Isabella’s injury by marring Beatrice of Este. Sforza later found himself warring against his son Francesco (whom he defeated at the Battle of Montolmo in 1444) and, later, the alliance of Visconti, Eugene IV, and Sigismondo Malatesta, who had allegedly murdered Polissena. Milan took the opportunity to proclaim itself the Ambrosian Republic (after St. Ambrose). With the help of Venice, Sforza was again victorious and, in exchange for abandoning the Venetians, received the title of capitano generale (commander-in-chief) of the Duchy of Milan's armies. Francesco Sforza (1401 - 1466) was a mercenary soldier (what Machiavelli would have called a "condottiero", i.e. In 1418, he married Polissena Ruffo, a Calabrese noblewoman. He later proved himself to be an expert tactician and very skilled field commander. In 1462, rumours spread that he was dead and a riot exploded in Milan. He was a moderate patron of the arts. Francesco Sforza was born in San Miniato, Tuscany, one of the seven illegitimate sons of the condottiero Muzio Sforza and Lucia da Torsano. Francesco I Sforza (July 23, 1401 – March 8, 1466) was an Italian condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan, Italy. Ludovico tried to counteract the Neapolitan threat aiding Charles VIII of France to attack Naples. His best works were mentioned in chapters 7,12, and 14. Chapter 20: Are Fortresses, and Many Other Things to Which Princes Often Resort, Advantageous Or Hurtful? Francesco's successor Ludovico commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to design an equestrian statue as part of a monument to Francesco I Sforza. He was succeeded as duke by his son, Galeazzo Maria Sforza. Cesare Borgia is Machiavelli’s case study of a prince who is everything a prince must be. The Milan republic offered Francesco a fixed price contract to defend the city. However, when the city made peace with Venice behind Francesco’s back, he turned his troops about, laid siege to Milan itself. A clay model of a horse which was to be used as part of the design was completed by Leonardo in 1492 — but the statue was never built. In 1436-39, he served variously both Florence and Venice. He was the brother of Alessandro, whom he often fought alongside. It was the first time that such a title was handed over by a lay institution. Chapter 21: How a Prince Should Conduct Himself So As to Gain Renown, Chapter 22: Concerning the Secretaries of Princes, Chapter 23: How Flatterers Should Be Avoided, Chapter 24: Why the Princes of Italy Have Lost Their States, Chapter 25: What Fortune Can Effect In Human Affairs and How to Withstand Her, Chapter 26: An Exhortation to Liberate Italy from the Barbarians, MERCENARIES AND THEIR MASTERS: Warfare in Renaissance Italy, Italian Wars 1494-1559, The: War, State and Society in Early Modern Europe (Modern Wars In Perspective), April Blood: Florence and the Plot against the Medici, Francesco was a new prince who succeeded by his own means. While he lived Milan remained a military power. This friendship eventually manifested in first the Peace of Lodi and then the Italian League, a multi-polar defensive alliance of Italian states that succeeded in stabilising almost all of Italy for its duration. He allowed Charles in 1495 to move his army through Milan. His grip was firm enough and his enemies sufficiently weakened that he was able to leave his territory to his son, Galeazzo. Francesco Sforza is mentioned several times in Niccolò Machiavelli's book The Prince; he is generally praised in that work for his ability to hold his country and as a warning to a prince not to use mercenarytroops. In 1440, his fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples were occupied by King Alfonso I, and, to recover the situation, Sforza reconciled himself with Filippo Visconti.